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. Last Updated: 07/27/2016

Young Girls Sold as Brides by Afghanistan's Poor

KANDAHAR, Afghanistan -- The young sisters are perky and eager to play. Zarlaska is 10 and listens intently to all that her parents are saying. Nabas Gul, 9, is more shy and hides behind her scarf.

The two live with, and often care for, five younger siblings in a large room in an otherwise ruined building, along what was once the front line of a forgotten Afghan battle. The room is dark and bare for such a large family, but there are some quilts, a cradle and a fire that make it feel a little like home.

But it won't be the girls' home for long. When the two were just toddlers, their father needed money to pay off his debts, and, seeing no other source of funds, he sold his daughters to wealthy opium poppy growers who wanted brides for their sons. Zarlaska and Nabas Gul can stay with their family until their husbands-to-be come to claim them -- usually around the time they reach puberty -- but their parents would have no right to object if the buyers wanted to take them now.

"I am a poor man, and this is how I can feed my large family,'' said their father, Sharafudin, himself a small-time poppy farmer who moved his family to Kandahar several years ago to escape other debt collectors. He said he knew it was wrong to sell the girls -- that some mullahs in his village had advised against it -- but that he didn't regret it.

"What else could I do?'' he asked with a shrug. Then he added, "Many others are doing the same thing.''

There are no statistics collected to measure it, but Afghans involved with women's issues say the selling of young girls is on the rise. After a quarter-century of war, civil chaos and most recently drought, many families have been strained to the breaking point, and the outright selling of daughters for cash is one harsh and heart-rending result.

The practice has a cultural basis in southern Afghanistan, where prospective husbands have long paid a "bride price'' for their wives -- a kind of dowry that is traditionally set by the status of the bride's family and the resources of the groom's. But what was a custom has evolved into a market in which men can buy young girls from poor families. And with the country's legal system a shambles, there is nothing to stop them.

"Unfortunately, we have families now where the girls are sold as young children, and the parents don't seem to think of the welfare of the girls at all,'' said Safia Amajar, director of the Kandahar Women's Association and a longtime educator in the city. "After so many years of war, people are poor and society is broken.

"Selling the children as brides is against Islam, and I tell people that. But there are so many other problems.''

Marrying a child and being directly paid for the sale are prohibited in Afghanistan under both the civil code and Islamic law. Marzia Basel, a former Afghan judge and founder of the Afghan Women Judges Association in Kabul, said, "there are laws, and then there is custom, and there is great poverty.''

"Until we have a strong government and people here have certain rights, these are the kind of things that will happen,'' she said.

More than a year after a U.S.-led military campaign, the United States and other donor countries are especially eager to improve conditions for girls and women in post-Taliban Afghanistan, and Zarlaska and Nabas Gul are beneficiaries of that interest. The two are going to school for the first time in their lives, and as long as they attend, their family gets a free can of vegetable oil every month through the UN World Food Program.

But when their husbands-to-be claim them, the girls will go back to the countryside, where there are no schools for girls, and often none for boys either.

The selling of daughters reveals not only the depth of poverty in some parts of Afghanistan, but also the long-standing divide between rural and urban life. Cities such as Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad show signs of change on many fronts, undergoing building booms and opening their schools to girls. But in the countryside, ancient customs prevail and can be stretched to cover the sale of girls, which Afghans and foreigners alike say is something new and alarming.

A report written last year for the WFP by Catherine Dunnion of the relief group GOAL Ireland, for instance, reported widespread selling of daughters in the far northern province of Jawzjan. She found villages where numerous girls aged 8 to 12 were sold, usually for the equivalent of $300 to $800.

"Everyone I talked to insisted that this activity has only been happening over the past four years of the drought,'' Dunnion wrote, adding that in villages that received WFP food, the number of girls sold declined.

In the case of Zarlaska and Nabas Gul, the transaction involved a meeting between their father and some of his male relatives and the men of the family of the grooms-to-be.

Because the girls were so young and wouldn't be received for some years, the price would be quite low. Sharafudin said he was paid the equivalent of about $400. If he had been able to wait longer, he said, he would have gotten more.

Although he barely knows them, Sharafudin insists that the families that will take in his daughters are good people. He said they live in the distant, mountainous area of Ghurak.

Away from their parents, Zarlaska and Nabas Gul were asked what they thought about their marriage arrangements. They listened stone-faced, glanced around for help, started to giggle and ran away.